Table of Contents

1. What is 100G DWDM?

100G DWDM refers to the 100Gbps (100G) transmission rate technology implemented on Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM) technology.

Simplily speaking, DWDM technology allows multiple optical signals of different wavelengths to be transmitted simultaneously on a single optical fiber. Each wavelength can carry a data signal, thereby greatly increasing the data transmission capacity of optical fiber. When the data rate per wavelength reaches 100Gbps, we call it 100G DWDM.

100G DWDM technology is mainly used for long-distance and metropolitan area network transmission. It can provide very high bandwidth and meet the needs for high-speed and large-capacity communication in data centers, mobile networks, cloud computing and other fields.

2. What is 100G passive DWDM?

100G passive DWDM refers to the use of Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM) technology at a transmission rate of 100Gbps, but does not use active power equipment (such as amplifiers, electrical modulators, etc.) in the entire system.

The main advantage of passive DWDM is that it does not require a power supply, making it more compact and cost-effective in some cases. It primarily uses passive optical components such as splitters, combiners, and filters to combine and separate multiple optical signals of different wavelengths on a single optical fiber.

However, the range and performance of 100G passive DWDM can be limited because no amplifiers or other active devices are used to boost the signal. This means the signal may only be able to travel over shorter distances, or it may require more maintenance to ensure signal quality.

In short, 100G passive DWDM is a solution that provides high-speed transmission without using active power equipment and is suitable for certain specific application scenarios and needs.

3. What is QSFP28 100G PAM4 DWDM?

“QSFP28 100G PAM4 DWDM” is a term used to describe a specific type of optical module. We can break down the parts of this term one by one to better understand its meaning:

*QSFP28: This is an optical module format. QSFP stands for “Quad Small Form-factor Pluggable”, meaning that this module supports 4 channels, and “28” refers to the highest data rate supported by this module, which is 28 Gbps. Therefore, a QSFP28 module can support data transfer up to 100 Gbps overall (4 lanes × 25 Gbps/lane = 100 Gbps).

*100G: This means that the module supports a data transfer rate of 100Gbps per second.

*PAM4: This is a term that represents the modulation method. PAM4, or “Pulse Amplitude Modulation with 4 levels”, uses 4 different levels to represent data, which allows it to transmit 2 bits of data per clock cycle, thereby increasing the data transfer rate.

*DWDM: This stands for “Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing”. DWDM is a technology that allows multiple optical signals of different wavelengths to be transmitted simultaneously through a single optical fiber, thereby greatly increasing the transmission capacity of the optical fiber.

So, overall, “QSFP28 100G PAM4 DWDM” is a term that describes a QSFP28 format optical module that can use PAM4 modulation and DWDM technology for data transmission at a rate of 100Gbps. Such modules are commonly used in data center interconnects, long-distance transmission, and high-speed networks.

4. How to design a coherent 100G DWDM transmission system?

Designing a coherent 100G DWDM transmission system is a rather complex process, involving multiple aspects of design and selection. Here are some of the main factors to consider when designing such a system:

*Choose a coherent detector: Coherent detectors can improve the performance of the receiver, allowing it to achieve better signal quality over long distances.

*Choose the appropriate light source: Use high-quality lasers, such as external cavity lasers, which have stable and accurate wavelengths, which is crucial for DWDM systems.

*Selection of modulation format: For example, QPSK, 16QAM, etc. The selected modulation format will affect the total transmission capacity and transmission distance of the system.

*Amplifier selection: Since long-distance transmission will cause signal attenuation, it may be necessary to use fiber amplifiers, such as EDFA (Erbium-doped Fiber Amplifier) or Raman amplifiers, to enhance the signal.

*Selection of demultiplexer/demultiplexer: In order to transmit multiple channels simultaneously on a single optical fiber, appropriate DWDM multiplexer and demultiplexer need to be selected.

* Gain equalization: Since the signal of each DWDM channel may experience different gains, gain equalization technology needs to be used to ensure that the signals of all channels are appropriately amplified.

*Dispersion Management: Long-distance transmission can cause fiber dispersion problems, and dispersion compensators may be needed to correct this problem.

*Evaluation of OSNR (Optical Signal-to-Noise Ratio) and signal quality: This is the key to ensuring transmission performance.

* Consider protection and redundancy: To provide high reliability, it may be necessary to design protection and redundant paths.

*Network management and monitoring: It is very important to design a network management system that can monitor system performance in real time and quickly locate faults.

These are just some of the basic factors to consider when designing a coherent 100G DWDM transmission system. According to the actual application scenarios and requirements, more detailed and specific designs are required.

5. What are the key technologies and implementation principles of 100G DWDM system?

The 100G DWDM system represents the development trend of high-speed and high-capacity optical communication technology. In order to support this high-speed data transmission, the 100G DWDM system introduces a variety of key technologies. The following are some of the key technologies and their implementation principles:

*High-order modulation format:

    – In order to increase the data rate of each channel, 100G DWDM systems usually use higher-order modulation formats such as QPSK (Quadrature Phase Shift Keying) or 16QAM (16-state Quadrature Amplitude Modulation).

    – This allows more bits to be transmitted per symbol, thus increasing the data rate.

* Digital signal processing (DSP) and coherent detection:

    – Using coherent detection technology, the amplitude and phase of optical signals can be detected more accurately.

    – DSP is used for compensation of linear and nonlinear effects such as dispersion and fiber nonlinearity.

*Soft-Decision FEC:

    – FEC technology can detect and correct data errors.

    – Compared with hard decision FEC, soft decision FEC provides higher error correction performance.

*Erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) and optical gain equalization:

    – Since signals in DWDM systems are attenuated during transmission, EDFA is used to amplify these signals.

    – Optical gain equalization ensures that all DWDM channel signals are properly amplified.

*Dispersion management:

    – Chromatic dispersion in optical fibers causes signal expansion and distortion.

    – Dispersion compensation modules or dispersion compensation fibers are used to correct this effect.

*DWDM multiplexer and demultiplexer:

    – These devices allow multiple channels to be transmitted in parallel on a single fiber, thereby increasing overall system capacity.

* Routing and wavelength selection switch:

    – These devices allow the flexibility to route optical channels to different paths or alternate paths, providing greater flexibility and reliability to the system.

*Network management and control:

    – In order to effectively manage and monitor DWDM networks, an integrated network management and control system is required.

These key technologies jointly support the high speed, high capacity and high reliability of the 100G DWDM system, making it a core component of modern optical communication networks.

6. What is a rack-mounted dense wavelength division multiplexer 100G DWDM?

A rack-mounted dense wavelength division multiplexer (DWDM) is an optical communication device that uses DWDM technology to multiplex multiple optical signals of different wavelengths onto a single optical fiber for transmission. When “100G DWDM” is mentioned, it usually means that the system supports data transmission rates of 100Gbps on each wavelength channel.

The following are the main features and components of a rack-mounted 100G DWDM system:

*Rack-mounted design:

    – Rack-mounted DWDM systems are designed for easy installation and integration in data centers, computer rooms or communication hubs.

    – It usually consists of a standard rack, a series of slots, and modular components such as amplifiers, multiplexers/demultiplexers, optical switches, etc.

* High-speed data transmission:

    – 100G DWDM systems support data transmission rates of 100Gbps on each wavelength channel, which is achieved through the use of high-order modulation techniques, digital signal processing and advanced forward error correction coding.

* High density:

    – Rack-mounted design allows parallel transmission of multiple wavelength channels, thus providing high-capacity data transmission. DWDM technology can support 40, 80, 96 or more channels.

* Modularity:

    – Due to the rack-mounted design, various components of the DWDM system (such as amplifiers, multiplexers/demultiplexers, etc.) are modular, which facilitates system upgrades and maintenance.

* Scalability and flexibility:

    – Rack-mounted DWDM systems are typically designed to be easily expanded to accommodate future network needs and capacity growth.

    – You can easily upgrade the system or add new functions by adding or replacing modules.

*Integrated management and monitoring:

    – Rack-mounted DWDM systems usually integrate network management and monitoring functions to allow system operators to monitor the status, performance and any potential problems of the system in real time.

Overall, the rack-mounted dense wavelength division multiplexer 100G DWDM system provides a modular, integrated and flexible solution for high-speed, high-capacity optical communications.

7. What equipment is needed for 100G DWDM?


100G DWDM (Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing) system requires a series of equipment and components to achieve high-speed optical communication. The following are the main equipment required to achieve 100G DWDM transmission:

* Optical transmitter and optical receiver:

    – Used to convert electrical signals to optical signals and from optical signals back to electrical signals.

    – For 100G DWDM systems, this usually involves higher-order modulation techniques such as QPSK or 16-QAM.

*DWDM multiplexer and demultiplexer:

    – A multiplexer multiplexes multiple optical signals of different wavelengths onto a single optical fiber.

    – The demultiplexer separates these multiplexed signals into their respective wavelengths.

*Optical amplifier (such as EDFA – Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifier):

    – Used to compensate for fiber losses in long-distance transmission.

    – In DWDM systems, amplifiers usually need to be able to handle signals at multiple wavelengths.

*Optical fiber:

    – High-quality single-mode fiber for long-distance DWDM transmission.

    – In order to meet different needs, different types of optical fibers may also be used, such as non-zero dispersion shifted fiber (NZDSF).

*Optical routers and optical switches:

    – In some network configurations, these devices are used to route and switch optical signals in DWDM networks.

*Light monitoring and management system:

    – These systems provide real-time network performance monitoring, fault detection, and other management functions.

* Compensator:

    – Used to compensate for chromatic dispersion in optical fibers and ensure signal quality.

*Optical filter:

    – In some configurations, filters are used to select or isolate signals at specific wavelengths.

*Light protection system:

    – These systems provide failover capabilities to ensure that signals can be transmitted via alternate paths if there is a problem with the primary path.

* Other equipment:

    – Depending on the specific network design and needs, other equipment such as optical modulators, optical detectors, wavelength converters and other specific components may also be required.

To achieve 100G DWDM transmission, all these devices and components must work together to ensure high-speed, efficient and reliable communications.

8. What are the applications of 100G DWDM?


100G DWDM (Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing) technology has become the mainstream of modern optical fiber communications, and its main applications cover many fields. The following lists the main application scenarios of 100G DWDM:

*Core transmission network: Due to its high bandwidth characteristics, 100G DWDM is usually used to build long-distance high-speed backbone networks between countries and continents to achieve fast data exchange between cities, countries and continents.

*Interconnected data centers: With the popularity of cloud computing and big data, data traffic between data centers is growing rapidly. 100G DWDM technology enables high-speed, high-reliability data exchange between data centers.

*Mobile network backhaul: With the popularization of mobile communication technologies such as 4G and 5G, mobile data traffic has shown explosive growth. 100G DWDM technology provides high-bandwidth backhaul solutions for mobile networks.

*Internet Service Provider (ISP) Network: For large Internet service providers, 100G DWDM provides the necessary bandwidth to meet the growing user data needs.

*Large enterprise or campus network: For those large enterprises and academic institutions that need to span a wide area or multiple buildings, 100G DWDM can provide fast and efficient internal data transmission.

*Research and Education Networks: Many research and higher education institutions require high-bandwidth, low-latency networks to support their research and academic activities, such as high-energy physics experiments and processing of large data sets.

* Government and defense networks: For national security and important information exchange, government and defense departments also use 100G DWDM technology.

*Video transmission and OTT services: With the popularity of 4K, 8K and other high-definition video formats, OTT (Over-The-Top) content providers, such as Netflix, YouTube and Amazon Prime, all rely on high-bandwidth DWDM technology. Content distribution.

*Remote backup and disaster recovery: For enterprises that need to back up critical data in remote locations, 100G DWDM provides a fast and reliable transmission solution.

*Cloud services and virtualization: Cloud service providers such as Amazon Web Services, Google Cloud, and Microsoft Azure rely on 100G DWDM technology to connect their global data centers.

Generally speaking, 100G DWDM technology is widely used in various scenarios that require large amounts of data transmission due to its high bandwidth, scalability and high reliability.

9. What are the relationships and differences between 100G DWDM and 100G OTN?

100G DWDM (Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing) and 100G OTN (Optical Transport Network) are both important technologies in the field of optical fiber communications, but their relationships and differences are as follows:

*Function and definition:

    – 100G DWDM: DWDM is a multiplexing technology that allows multiple wavelengths of optical signals to be transmitted simultaneously on the same optical fiber. Each wavelength can carry an independent data stream, typically reaching 100Gbps or higher.

    – 100G OTN: OTN is a digital transmission system that provides multiple services for data flows, including error correction, time synchronization and management. It is defined under the ITU-T G.709 standard and is designed to unify different transmission technologies such as SDH/SONET, Ethernet and Fiber Channel.


    – 100G DWDM can be combined with 100G OTN, where OTN provides frame structure, error correction, management and other functions for DWDM. This combination enables more efficient transmission, management and monitoring of data in high-speed, long-distance DWDM networks.


    – Layers and responsibilities: DWDM mainly focuses on optical fiber communication at the physical layer, and its goal is to maximize the data transmission capacity of a single optical fiber. On top of the physical layer, OTN provides frame structure and management functions for digital transmission.

    -Applications: DWDM is mainly used to increase the bandwidth of fiber optic communications, while OTN provides better control and management of these data flows.

    – Technical details: DWDM focuses on physical layer technologies such as wavelengths, lasers, and amplifiers, while OTN focuses more on the details of digital transmission, such as forward error correction, clock synchronization, and management channels.

In general, although 100G DWDM and 100G OTN are both key technologies for optical fiber communications, they are different at the communication level. DWDM focuses on increasing the bandwidth of optical fiber, while OTN provides the structure and management functions for these high-bandwidth data flows. In many modern fiber optic communications systems, these two technologies are often used together to achieve efficient and reliable data transmission.

10. What is the 100G ultra-long distance DWDM architecture?

The 100G ultra-long distance DWDM (Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing) architecture is designed to meet the needs of long-distance, high-bandwidth optical fiber transmission. With the development of data centers, cloud computing and mobile Internet, the demand for high-speed data transmission is growing rapidly. The following are some of the key components and features of 100G ultra-long-haul DWDM architecture:

*Modulation technology: In order to achieve 100Gbps data transmission over ultra-long distances, a technology called “coherent detection” is often used. This technology uses advanced modulation formats, such as QPSK or 16QAM, to encode information.

*Forward Error Correction (FEC): Since signals are attenuated and interfered by noise during long-distance transmission, FEC technology is very critical here, and it can improve the strength of the signal without adding additional bandwidth.

*Optical amplifier: In order to compensate for the signal loss in the optical fiber, optical amplifiers (such as EDFA, Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifier) are used to regularly amplify the signal in transmission.

*Tunable lasers: They allow the flexibility to select or change the wavelength, allowing the DWDM system to flexibly adjust and optimize the bandwidth.

*Optical multiplexers and demultiplexers: These devices are used to combine (or separate) optical signals of multiple wavelengths on a single optical fiber.

*Dispersion Compensation: In long-distance transmission, dispersion will distort the signal. Dispersion compensation modules or dispersion compensation fiber can be used to correct this distortion.

*ROADM (Reconfigurable Optical Add/Drop Multiplexer): This is a device that can dynamically add or delete a certain wavelength, making the network more flexible and manageable.

*Monitoring and management systems: These systems can monitor signal quality in real time, such as optical power, signal-to-noise ratio, etc., and provide remote configuration and troubleshooting functions.

In practical applications, the 100G ultra-long-distance DWDM system may need to be customized based on the actual transmission distance, network topology and business requirements. However, the above-mentioned components and technologies provide the foundation for achieving stable and efficient 100Gbps transmission.

11. 100G DWDM manufacturer-HYD TECHNOLOGY

In the optical communications industry, HYD TECHNOLOGY has become a leader in 100G DWDM technology. We are committed to providing high-performance, high-reliability DWDM solutions for global communication service providers and enterprise networks.

Why choose HYD TECHNOLOGY’s 100G DWDM products?


Technology leadership: Our R&D team always stands at the forefront of technology to ensure that our products are industry-leading in performance, stability and innovation.

Global service network: No matter where you are, HYD TECHNOLOGY has a technical support team to provide you with 24/7 support.

Flexibility and Scalability: Our DWDM products are designed to be flexible and capable of meeting a variety of needs from small businesses to large communications service providers.

High cost performance: Through advanced manufacturing processes and supply chain management, we ensure that customers can obtain the highest quality products at the most competitive prices.

When you choose HYD TECHNOLOGY, you not only choose a product, but also a long-term, trustworthy partner.

Welcome to contact HYD TECHNOLOGY team at any time .Thanks !

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